Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, the vast majority of landlords in Ireland were members of the Church of Ireland, which until 1869 was the established state church. Residing in their ‘big houses’ located on beautiful demesnes, these families exerted significant influence on the political, social and economic life of local areas as well as nationally. Taking a chronological approach, this book charts the evolution of the landscape and community of Cloverhill in north Cavan, within which the Church of Ireland parish of St John’s sits, from circa 1720 until 2010. It highlights the role of the Sanderson family, who built up a large estate in the area, and who were the leading agents in the construction of St John’s Church in the mid 19th century. Drawing from a wide range of primary source material this book describes the evolution of both the built and social environment of the parish between 1860 and 2010. It highlights the powerful role played by particular individuals and the remarkable continuity that remains between the mid 19th century and the present day. In particular, it discusses how a rural Church of Ireland parish on the Cavan-Fermanagh border has evolved and adapted to the broader political, social and economic changes experienced in Ireland over the last 150 years Edition 1 ISBN / ISSN 9780906602539
About the Ulster Journal of Archaeology
The Ulster Journal of Archaeology, a peer-reviewed academic journal, is the longest established and foremost repository of excavation reports and other papers on archaeological research in Ulster. The Journal acts as a conduit to disseminate the results of these across the world. The Journal is one of the most highly-regarded sources of archaeological information on the island of Ireland and is internationally recognised as such. The Journal also publishes papers on history, material culture and folklore.
The First Series of the Ulster Journal of Archaeology was edited by RS MacAdam and ran from 1853 to 1861. A Second Series, from 1894 to 1911, was edited by FJ Bigger. In the 1930’s E. Estyn Evans (lecturer in Geography at QUB), Oliver Davies (lecturer in Ancient History and Classical Archaeology at QUB) and five prominent members of the Belfast Naturalists Field Club (BNFC) and Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society (BNHPS) re-founded the Ulster Journal of Archaeology as a Third Series. Volume 1 of the Third Series appeared in 1938 with Oliver Davis as Editor. Eighty years on, the current editor of the Ulster Journal of Archaeology is Cormac Bourke.
Ulster Journal of Archaeology: Contents 1
Ulster Journal of Archaeology: Contents 2
Ulster Journal of Archaeology: Contents 3
County Cavan in the north midlands of Ireland encompasses 193,500 hectares (478,148 acres) of land and water and is the nineteenth largest of Ireland’s thirty-two counties. Its landscape is characterised by small rounded hills, known as drumlins, interspersed with lakes. The hilly northwest of the county hosts a number of international tourism attractions including the Shannon Erne Waterway – Cavan flows north as well as south – and the Marble Arch Caves Global Geopark. The Geopark, which straddles the land boundary between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, is recognised by UNESCO to have an exceptional geological heritage.
This publication, the 23rd volume in the History and Society series, edited by Jonathan Cherry and Brendan Scott with series editor William Nolan comprises twenty-nine chapters on this wonderful county. It is a co-operative enterprise that brings together a range of specialists from within and without the county to present its story. All of them have endeavoured to strip away the layers of time and uncover the past in its multiple manifestations. It is the history of a specific bounded place
with its own latitude and longitude but it also contributes to the narrative of our island home. Below you can see the vast breadth of topics covered in this book as indicated by the table of contents.
Table of contents
Chapter 1 ROCK, WHIN AND THE SOUL WITHIN by Shane Connaughton
Chapter 2 COUNTY CAVAN’S PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY –THE CANVAS FOR OUR CULTURAL IMPRINT by Susan Hegarty
Chapter 3 THE EARLY HISTORY AND SUB-DIVSIONS OF THE KINGDOM OF BREIFNE by Paul MacCotter
Chapter 4 THE OTHER BURREN – ARCHAEOLOGY AND LANDSCAPE IN NORTH-WEST CAVAN by Rory Sherlock
Chapter 5 THE BREAC MAODHÓG: A UNIQUE MEDIEVAL IRISH RELIQUARY by Griffin Murray
Chapter 6 FRONTIER SETTLEMENT IN CAVAN IN THE HIGH MEDIEVAL PERIOD (1169-1550) by Linda Shine
Chapter 7 THE ULSTER PLANTATION AND ITS EFFECT ON NATIVE AND SETTLER IN CAVAN, 1610-1641 by Brendan Scott
Chapter 8 ‘A STAR OF THE FIRST MAGNITUDE’: WILLIAM BEDELL (1571-1642), BISHOP OF KILMORE AND GAELIC CULTURE by Marc Caball
Chapter 9 NON-CONFORMIST RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS IN COUNTY CAVAN IN THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES by Patrick Cassidy
Chapter 10 CAVAN AND THE PRESBYTERIAN FRONTIER IN THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY by Robert Armstrong
Chapter 11 REVD JOHN RICHARDSON (c.1669-1747): COUNTY CAVAN RECTOR AND IRISH LANGUAGE ENTHUSIAST by Toby Barnard
Chapter 12 A TURBULENT DECADE: COUNTY CAVAN IN THE 1790s by Liam Kelly
Chapter 13 THE POLITICS OF THE PROTESTANT ASCENDANCY IN COUNTY CAVAN, 1584-1840 by James Kelly
Chapter 14 THERAPEUTIC LANDSCAPES IN CAVAN by Ronan Foley
Chapter 15 ROAD-MAKING AND MAPPING IN EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY CAVAN – THE ROLE OF WILLIAM LARKIN by Arnold Horner
Chapter 16 THE ORANGE ORDER IN COUNTY CAVAN, 1798-2014
by Jack Johnston
Chapter 17 ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE SHIFT AND THE DECLINE IN IRISH IN COUNTY CAVAN IN THE EIGHTEENTH AND NINETEENTH CENTURIES
by Ciarán Mac Murchaidh
Chapter 18 ‘MELTING DOWN’: POST-FAMINE EMIGRATION FROM COUNTY CAVAN by Mary Sullivan
Chapter 19 IDENTIFYING THE POOR OF CAVAN, 1838-1911 by Georgina Laragy
Chapter 20 THE STRUCTURE, DEMISE AND LEGACY OF LANDLORDISM IN COUNTY CAVAN, c.1870-c.1970 by Jonathan Cherry
Chapter 21 OLIVER NUGENT, THE GENTRY AND THE GREAT WAR
by Nicholas Perry
Chapter 22 ‘AN EXAMPLE OF THE REHABILITATION OF HER SEX’: CONTEXTUALISING THE FOUNDING AND EARLY MISSION MESSAGE OF THE HOLY ROSARY SISTERS FROM KILLESHANDRA, COUNTY CAVAN,
1924-1949 by Michael Finnegan
Chapter 23 THE CO-OPERATIVE CREAMERIES AND THEIR ROLE IN THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTY CAVAN by Frank Brennan
Chapter 24 THE FOLKLORE COLLECTIONS OF CAVAN PROVENANCE IN THE NATIONAL FOLKLORE COLLECTION AND HOW THEY WERE ASSEMBLED by Mícheál Briody
Chapter 25 THE ROAD TO THE ‘STAR SPANGLED FINAL’: GAELIC FOOTBALL IN CAVAN c.1884-1947 by Brian McCabe
Chapter 26 CAVAN’S TOWNS AND VILLAGES FROM THE PLANTATION TO THE TWENTIETH CENTURY by Michael O’Neill
Chapter 27 RECENT SETTLEMENT CHANGE IN COUNTY CAVAN, 1981-2011 by Ruth McManus
Chapter 28 PADDY SMITH: CAVAN MAN OF FARMING, FOOTBALL AND FIANNA FÁIL by Tom Feeney
Chapter 29 A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF COUNTY CAVAN BASED ON THE COLLECTION OF BOOKS AND JOURNALS IN THE LOCAL STUDIES SECTION AT THE JOHNSTON CENTRAL LIBRARY by Jonathan A. Smyth
The plantation of Ulster in the early seventeenth century was an episode of critical importance in the history of Ireland, the legacy of which is still apparent today. Adopting a multidisciplinary approach, this collection of essays, arising from two conferences organised by the Ulster Local History Trust in 2008 and 2010, explores a number of themes relating to the plantation.
The essays in Plantation – Aspects of seventeenth-century Ulster Society, range from overviews to case studies of particular areas, individuals or groups. Sources that are essential to a better understanding of the immense social, economic, demographic and political changes brought about by the plantation are highlighted, while the experiences of the Irish, English and Scots are all brought into view and analysed from different perspectives. Edited by Brendan Scott and John Dooher expert contributors to the book include Dr Patrick Fitzgerald and Dr William Roulston
The conclusions challenge some preconceived notions and offer fresh thinking on aspects of this period. This accessible, scholarly and competitively priced collection does much to further our understanding of the Ulster Plantation
Duffy, P.J. (1995) Perspectives on the making of the Cavan landscape. In: Cavan: essays on the history of an Irish county. Irish Academic Press, Dublin, pp. 14-36. ISBN 0-7165-2554-2
Townlands: territorial signatures of landholding and identity
Duffy, Patrick (2004) Townlands: territorial signatures of landholding and identity. In: The heart’s townland: marking boundaries in Ulster. The Ulster Local History Trust in association with The Cavan-Monaghan Rural Development Co-operative Society, pp. 18-38. ISBN 0 9542832 1 X
Duffy, P.J. (1988) The Evolution of Estate Properties in South Ulster 1600 – 1900. In: Common ground: essays on the historical geography of Ireland presented to T. Jones Hughes. Cork University Press, Cork, Ireland, pp. 84-109. ISBN 0 902561 53 7
The One Inch series of Ordnance maps first appeared in 1858 based on reductions of the six-inch county maps of the time. The sheets were split and regrouped into the now familiar 205 sheets which cover the entire country. By the 1890s the first edition maps were seen as out-dated in both style and content and were replaced by the second edition which were coloured, mounted between two boards and made more suitable for outdoor use. These maps are very useful for the local historian as quite an amount of detailed information can be gleaned from these documents including individual houses, recently constructed railway lines.
Index to the one-inch series of Ireland:
One-inch maps which cover County Cavan:
|67||Carrick on Shannon||1836-38||1899||1901||1904|
Sample One-inch map, extract from Sheet 80, 1902:
Phillip O’Connell’s The Diocese of Kilmore: Its History and Antiquities tells the story of the diocese from the coming of St. Patrick to Ireland in the 5th century until the early 20th century. The diocese of Kilmore encompasses most of County Cavan and parts of counties Leitrim, Fermanagh, Meath and Sligo and straddles the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland . It is one of eight suffragan dioceses which fall under the Archdiocese of Armagh, the most senior primatial see in Ireland .
The diocese was formerly known as Triburnia or Tybruinensis because it once was owned by King Brian of Connaught and was formally established in 1152. The territory was more or less interchangeable with what became known as the Kingdom of Briefne , the lands of the rival O’Rourke and O’Reilly Gaelic clans. St. Felim established a church at Kilmore south of present day Cavan Town . In the mid 15th century Bishop Aindrias Mac Brádaigh received permission from Pope Nicholas V to transform it into the cathedral of his diocese.
Following the English reformation, the Catholic diocese was stripped of its cathedral, properties and possessions. Monasteries were dissolved and their wealth confiscated and over the centuries that followed Catholics who did not convert to the Protestant faith faced brutal persecution. In the early 17th century Protestant settlers from Scotland and England began colonised much of Ulster displacing the native Irish.
Catholicism remained the dominant religion of the native Gaelic Irish and what had been an ethnic conflict with British settlers now became a religious one too. A series of sectarian and nationalist rebellions and wars followed and ravaged much of Ireland between the 16th and 17th centuries culminating in the Protestant victory at the Battle of Boyne in 1690.
The Gaelic Irish families disappeared into obscurity as they were replaced by an Anglo-Irish landowning elite. The majority of the Gaelic Irish population who lived in wretched poverty as tenants on their own land clung stubbornly to their Roman Catholic faith. The established Anglican Church demanded that all regardless of religion should pay tithes. This discrimination was bitterly resented by both Catholics and Presbyterians alike.
Finally in the late 18th century the Penal Laws persecuting Catholics were gradually relaxed and an increasingly confident Catholic Church began to emerge. Bishop of Kilmore, Rev. Denis Maguire (1770–98) was involved in a church building program as restrictions on Catholic worship were lifted. Bishop James Browne (1827–65) founded the diocesan college in 1839. The diocese was ravaged by the Great Famine which saw a million die from starvation and disease across the country. In the 19th century, the issues of Catholic Emancipation, land reform and the Home Rule movement meant that the Catholic Church was intimately involved in politics. An eviction witnessed by a local Catholic priest was the basis for the ballad “By Lough Sheelin Side.”
O’Connell’s book is dedicated to Bishop Patrick Finegan (1910–1937) who served during a profound period of violent transition from direct British rule to Irish political independence. The Irish Catholic Church opposed violent republicanism and favoured peaceful democratic politics during the period 1916-1923 when Ireland was convulsed by the War of Independence and a bitter civil war. The threat of all out war with the Unionist Protestant population of what became the six counties of Northern Ireland was only narrowly avoided.
Following independence from Britain the burden of providing schooling, hospitals and other vital social services in the new Irish Free State fell upon the shoulders of clergy such as Bishop Finegan. At the same time Bishop Finegan was involved in fund raising for the Cathedral of Saints Patrick & Felim. He was to die the year before construction began. In the decades that followed, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kilmore played a leading role in all aspects of the lives of its people.